塔林The Forest of Stupas

录入:admin  www.tanzhesi.com.cn   2017/5/9  人气:1572

 
塔林   潭柘古刹,历经了十多个朝代,规模宏大,曾有难以数计的僧人在这里修行,并终老于此,因而在寺院附近留下了数量众多的僧人墓塔。如今在寺前的塔林内完好的保存着形式多样的历代佛塔七十余座。下塔院的塔林埋葬着金、元、明三代的部分高僧,塔形不一,种类较多,有石经幢式塔、方形单层浮层屠式塔、密檐式砖塔和覆钵形藏式石塔。修建最早的塔是下塔院的海云禅师塔,至今已有800多年的历史了。此塔为六面六角密檐式实心砖塔,共有七层,正面镶有塔额,上写“佛日圆明海云禅师塔”。要说下塔林中最高大的墓塔要数金代的广慧通理禅师塔,此塔位于下塔院的中心,塔高九层,也是密檐式实心砖塔,塔前设有宽大的石供桌,塔前左右两侧还各有一株千年娑罗树。通过此塔的位置、塔的层数、墓塔周围的环境布置,充分显示出了广慧通理禅师生前在佛门的地位是相当高的。埋葬僧人最多的墓塔是“十方普同塔”。潭柘寺僧人众多,组织严密,等级森严,大和尚死后一人一塔,而下层和尚死后,则合葬在这座十方普同塔内。十方普同塔位于金代广慧通理禅师塔的东侧,为覆钵形实心砖塔,十分高大。据说在塔身上一处砖是活动的,塔底下是一个很大很深的砖砌墓穴,寺内的下层和尚殛了,火化后,将骨灰装在一个小坛子里,将塔身上的活动砖抽出,把骨灰投进塔内的墓穴中,再将活动砖插好。此塔建于明代万历四十二年,几百年来,塔内所埋葬的僧人难以数计,因而人们又称此塔为“万人塔”。
 
The Forest of Stupas
Since Tanzhe Temple is a very large temple after ten dynasties, there were so many monks practiced Buddhism and spent their last years of life in the temple that a big group of monk’s tomb stupas left in long history. Up to now, there are more than seventy tomb stupas in all kind of styles from different dynasties left in the forest of stupas in the front of the temple. Some eminent monks in Jin, Yuan and Ming Dynasties were buried in the forest of stupas in the lower stupa courtyard. With different stupas in different styles, there are tombs of stone banner with sutra style, square one-storyed stupa style, brick stupa with thick eaves and stone stupa in Tibetan style. The stupa of Chan Master Hai Yun in the lower stupa courtyard is the most early one with a history of 800 years. It is a seven-storyed solid brick stupa with six sides and bugles in thick eaves. There is a horizontal inscribed board on the stupa written Stupa of Chan Master Fo-Ri Yuan-Tong Hai-Yun. The highest stupa in lower stupa courtyard is that of Chan Master Guang-Hui Tong-Li in Jin Dynasty in the center of the courtyard. It is a nine-storyed solid brick stupa with thick eaves. There is a large altar tables before the stupa with two sala trees in thousand years old beside. Its surroundings shows us the high position by Chan Master Guang-Hui Tong-Li in his life as well as in the temple. There is a stupa called Shi-Fang Pu-Tong Ta. It was for large numbers of common monks. There were so many monks in the temple, but they were well-organized and rigidly stratified. The remains of a senior monk could occupy one stupa after he passed away, but the remains of many common monks had been put into the only Shi-Fang Pu-Tong stupa after they passed away. It is a high solid brick stupa with Tibetan style in the east side of Chan Master Guang-Hui Tong-Li’s one. It is said that, there is one piece of brick in the stupa which can be taken out, and a large and deep grave in the bottom. Once there was a common monk passed away, the remains after his cremation would be put into a small jar. The brick would be taken out first, and the jar would be put into the grave then, lastly the brick would be put back to the stupa. It was built in the 42nd of Wanli Years in Ming Dynasty. In several hundreds of years, as the number of monks buried into the stupa is difficult to be counted, people call it the stupa of ten thousand monks.
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