天王殿 Deveraja Hall

录入:admin  www.tanzhesi.com.cn   2017/5/9  人气:3083

  
  
    山门内的第一重殿宇是天王殿,单檐歇山顶,木结构,三间开,高37尺,进深34尺,面阔50尺。殿顶覆以绿色琉璃瓦,黄色琉璃吻兽,殿的四角挂有圆形风铃,前额上有康熙皇帝亲书的“天王殿”斗子金匾。
    天王殿内顶上的天花板绘有“金龙和玺”的图案,这是我国古建筑中最高等级的一种彩绘图案,只有皇宫才可以用。因为潭柘寺是“敕建”的皇家寺庙,因而也可以使用。殿内正中供有木雕漆金的弥勒坐像。弥勒是梵文的音译,意译为“慈氏”,是佛教中的菩萨名。据佛经上讲,弥勒本是南印度人,后来成为释迦牟尼的弟子。释迦牟尼预言,弥勒将继承自己的佛位,是释加牟尼的“法定”接班人。弥勒修炼成道后,往生到兜率天的内院,等释迦牟尼寂灭后,下界接替佛位,因而弥勒又被称为“未来佛”。天王殿中所供奉的弥勒是五代后梁时浙江奉化契此和尚的形象,肥头大耳,袒胸露腹,大肚凸出,吉眉乐目,俗称“大肚弥勒”。当年契比和尚常用竹杆挑着一个布袋,四处化缘,游戏人间。他能知晴雨,常示人吉凶。人们见他语无伦次,行为奇特,以为疯颠。一天他来到宁波天童寺,端从在一块大石头上,口念偈语:“弥勒真弥勒,分身千万亿;时时示时人,时人自不识。”然后安然而逝,人们这才知道他是弥勒的化身,按其形象塑成佛像,供奉进了寺庙之中。在正面的楹柱上挂有一幅非常有名的对联,“大肚能容,容天下难容之事”,“开口便笑,笑世上可笑之人”,即是对弥勒形象的生动写照,其中又蕴含着很深的哲理。
    在弥乐的背后为护法韦驮的木雕漆金立像,与弥勒相背而立,面向北面的大雄宝殿。韦驮姓韦名琨,是南方增长天王手下八大将之一。释迦牟尼涅磐后,火化尸体,结成了许多“佛舍利”,韦驮曾负责看守佛舍利。在中国的寺庙中,韦驮一般均为顶盔金甲,手捧金刚杵,表现出勇猛善战的气势。将其安放在天王殿中,弥勒的背后,面向大雄宝殿,是表示他是佛的护卫者,日夜保护着大雄宝殿中的释迦牟尼佛。
    在殿内两侧为泥塑彩绘的四大天王坐像,头戴天王冠,身穿铠甲,脚下踩着八大鬼,一个个手持法宝,怒目圆睁,威风凛凛。四大天王又称为“护世四天王”,是佛教世界的保护神,分别护持着天下的四大部洲。黄脸的是东方持国天王提头赖吒,手持琵琶,保护东胜神洲人民;蓝脸的是南方增长天王毗琉璃,手持宝剑,保护南瞻部洲人民;红脸的是西方广目天王毗留博叉,手缠一龙,保护西牛贺洲人民;白脸的是北方多闻天王毗沙门,左手持银鼠,右手持宝幢,保护北俱卢洲人民。中国人认为,南方增长天王的宝剑象征着“风”,东方持国天王手持的琵琶象征着“调”,北方多闻天王手持的伞象征着“雨”,西方广目天王手缠龙象征着“顺”,合在一起为“风调雨顺”,表达了中华民族祈求国泰民安的美好愿望。在我国明代的神话小说《封神演义》中则把四大天王汉化了,说商纣王手下守卫佳梦关的魔家四兄弟死后被封为护持佛教的四大天王。
    在殿内两侧的墙壁上绘有四值功曹,即值年、值月、值日、值时四员天将,是守护之神。这四值功曹原本是道教之神,主管监察世间,随时向玉皇大帝汇报情况,佛教传入中国后,被转化成了佛教的守护神。
 

Deveraja Hall

In center of Deveraja Hall, there enshrined a statue of sitting Maitreya with wooden carving and golden lacquer. Maitreya originally was from southern India and became disciple of Sakyamuni Buddha later. He was predicted to succeed Sakyamuni Buddha and is called the Buddha of future. The Maitreya we have seen was carved after the image of venerable Qi Ci who was a monk in Fenghua, Zhejiang in Houliang Period of Five Dynasties. Attracted by his fatty head and big ears as well as breast and belly exposing, or by his smiling eyebrows and eyes, people call him the Big Belly Maitreya Buddha.

In round side of the Hall, there are statues of Four Guardian Gods who protect the four quarters of the world. The god with pipa in hand is the east Dhrtarastra. The god with a double-edged sword in hand is the south Virudhaka. The Virupaksa in west takes snake with dragon head in right hand and a precious pearl in left hand. The god with umbrella is the north Vaisravana. The four gods symbolize the wind and rain being in harmony and good for corps.

The warrior god standing behind the Maitreya Buddha is the Skanda. He is called Wei Tuo and is one of the eight generals under the south Virudhaka. It was said that there were many sariras left in the cremation of the Lord Body after Buddha entered into nirvana. Skanda was in the charge of watch the remains of Lord Buddha. Skanda here means that he is the guard of Buddha to protect the Sakyamuni in Mahavira Hall in day and night.
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